A toolbox of processes for community work
For more resources for communities,
see the co-intelligence community page
Below is a list (still in progress) of processes that can increase
the capacity of communities to respond intelligently to the changing
environment around them, including crises. Most of these processes
are on the leading edge of organizational development, group work
and community organizing. These were chosen because guidance --
written material, expertise, training, or replicable models -- exists
for each of these methods, for people who wish to put them into
practice. Most of these methods are quite simple (although not always
EASY) to do, and are therefore good grassroots tools. This also
makes them easier to communicate and implement in cases where they
are being initiated from the top down. Ones that require the most
expertise are often the least described here, but have references
to guidance resources. Some of the simpler forms are described at
The impact of many of these processes can be greatly broadened and
deepened by a number of factors, three of which I've listed here:
a) Servant Leadership. Often the initiative for
processes such as these in communties comes from the bottom, the
grassroots. In such instances, while the benefits for those involved
tends to be great, participation tends to be limited to relatively
small groups, resulting in minimal benefits for the community or
society as a whole. On the other hand, where there is active cooperation
or initiative by the government and media -- promoting the activity,
reaching out to seldom-engaged populations, providing space and
other resources, reporting on what happened, encouraging follow-up,
etc. -- there is a dramatic improvement in community expectations,
community participation, and community follow-up (both further dialogue
and deliberation, and actual actions taken by citizens and officials).
Another dimension of servant leadership that we should keep in mind,
especially when the initiative comes from the top -- is that these
processes must serve to empower -- rather than to control -- the
participants and their community. Otherwise they will fail or backfire.
b) Regularity - A good process done continually
or at periodic intervals over time has a tendency to generate positive
effects far beyond its use in a single event. It becomes part of
the culture of those using it, weaving itself into their assumptions,
interactions, and expectations. A familiar example is voting. A
one-time election for a leader would be better than no election
for a leader. But when a society has elections every 2-4 years,
that nurtures the idea that the leaders are answerable to the electorate.
(Even when, as happens in our society, powerholders find loopholes
in the electoral system that reduce the ACTUAL power of citizens.
There remains the ASSUMPTION that the citizenry SHOULD be powerful,
that something is wrong and needs to be corrected.) Furthermore,
people become habituated to elections and use this method in other
areas of their lives, such as their voluntary associations (clubs,
community groups, etc.). In the vast majority of cases below, a
group, community or society would benefit greatly by practicing
the method regularly and incorporating it into the normal rhythms
of their collective life. By using them as an event, we empower
individuals and groups. By using them as a process, we empower whole
communities and societies.
c) Complementarity - Each one of these processes
has a power of its own. Those who advocate it tend to focus on that
power. Far rarer are those who see opportunities to use such processes
together in some synergistic way. To return to our previous example:
voting is powerful and so is a free press. Either COULD exist without
the other. Their combination is FAR more powerful (and empowering)
than either of them could be without the other. Hopefully at least
some community leaders will recognize this and weave a number of
the tools below into patterns that will enhance the overall efficacy
of each one. (For one vision of how one might integrate some of
these approaches, see "Designing
Multi-Process Public Participation Programs" by Tom Atlee.)
And if anyone should combine servant leadership, regularity and
complementarity into a community involvement program using a number
of these tools, they will have transformed the system in which they
operate -- moving into a form of democracy never seen before.
(Note: For issues and criteria related
to public participation,
of Public Participation.)
I have sorted these methods into a number of categories, depending
on what each process is particularly good for:
For public education
I don't have any leading edge processes for this, which includes
PSAs, outreach to existing community groups, creation of videos,
all varieties of media, internet services, parades, fairs, conferences,
essay contests, fliers, door hangers, etc., with which most PR people
or media activists know about. I include it because it is very important,
it is what people think of first, and it should be part of any integrated
And now for the more unusual approaches.
For national, state or large community
citizen deliberation and policy guidance
1 ) Citizen Deliberative
Councils - A random or demographically representative group
of 12-24 citizens convened to study an issue (sometimes questioning
expert witnesses) and produce policy recommendations. They are usually
professionally facilitated to a consensus statement that is formally
presented to media and/or officials. Details are not given here,
as they require more complex knowledge than can be included in this
context, but this approach is one of the most powerful methods of
democratic wisdom-generation I've run across. Variations for which
instructions, expertise or replicable models exist include the following
(for a fuller list see Citizen Deliberative Councils):
a) Danish consensus
conference (organized and tracked in the US by the
b) Wisdom Councils
envisioned by consultant Jim Rough
juries (organized by the Jefferson
For community self-organization
2 ) Open Space Technology
- A self-organized conference about a topic about which all attendees
have passion. After an initial briefing, attendees create workshops,
discussion groups or task groups according to their interests. Attendees
are encouraged to let go of outcomes, welcome the unexpected, and
move around to find sessions where they can actively learn or contribute.
This method allows otherwise hidden issues to emerge and get dealt
with, and ensures that any topic raised will have someone to deal
with it. It is not the best method for relaying information or controlling
outcomes. But for involvement, shared exploration and community
self-organization it has few peers. For example, it is tantalizing
to imagine what would happen if a town chose an issue of major longterm
citizen concern and organized an ongoing open space conference about
it, with the sessions well advertised in the media each day. Citizens
could come wrestle with new issues as they arose, while making progress
on ongoing issues.
Open Space can be done AFTER information dissemination activities.
For example, you could have morning presentations by experts, followed
by an afternoon of open space sessions. When time is short, one
can try a modified open space process: a certain number of rooms/spaces
are made available for sessions and anyone who wants to hold one
announces it and makes a sign on which they stick a space-assignment
post-it note. Then they post their sign on a wall as the next person
announces THEIR session, etc., until all the rooms/spaces are filled
or there are no more proposed sessions.
In another powerful, simple variation created by Doug Carmichael
for crisis situations, a facilitator helps the group make a list
of crisis-related community issues and then makes those into breakout
sessions, asking for a volunteer to convene each one. The two tasks
of each session are to get contact information on everyone who comes
and to schedule a time when they can meet again. Those meetings
are then announced in the local paper. In short order, the session
convenors become leaders of community preparedness task forces.
3 ) Multi-sector collaborations - people from government,
business, civic groups, non-profits, the media, utilities, religious
institutions, and so on, come together to work on a shared problem.
Two specific forms are:
a) Future Search Conference
- a gathering of 30-64 stakeholders -- a cross-section of the
community plus a few important outsiders -- who explore and record
their shared past and the forces at work in their collective lives,
and then imagine desirable futures and how to get there. Differences
are acknowledged and set aside, and work groups formed.
Dialogic Change - Multistakeholder generative dialogic
change processes--deep conversations among all relevant system
actors--develop a greater level of understanding and awareness
about the problem and each actor's role in a larger system of
interactions. System actors are then able to generate new alliances,
collaborations, and solutions that go beyond traditional approaches.
4 ) Listening Projects
- Citizens go door to door asking significant, open-ended, engaging
questions about an issue that concerns them and accepting whatever
the person says. It might look like a poll, but the object is consciousness
raising, relationship-building, and engagement -- not public opinion
monitoring. A peace group doing a listening project started their
interviews by asking people what was wrong with their brochure about
a local navy installation, noting that their promo hadn't been working
very well. Respondents gave suggestions and, at the same time, learned
about the naval yard. Some spoke very passionately about what they
learned and were invited to get involved; some even became local
organizers. The main developers of listening projects -- Rural Southern
Voice for Peace -- caution that the best results come with training
(which they offer).
5 ) Asset-Based Community
Development (ABCD) - Citizens can discover, map and
mobilize assets hidden away in all the folks who live in their community,
as well as in associations and formal institutions, and bring those
resources them out of the closet and into creative synergy with
each other, with dramatic results. Asset-based community development
has provided leaders and institutions in all sectors with an approach
that is relatively cheap, effective and empowering, and that avoids
paternalism and dependence -- an approach that can be supported
by all parts of the political spectrum and initiated at any level
of civic life. John L. McKnight, co-author of Building Communities
from the Inside Out: A Path Toward Finding and Mobilizing a Community's
Assets, is adamant about not putting attention on the community's
needs, deficiencies and problems since it strengthens them and leads
people to see themselves and others as clients or victims rather
than as assets. However, in preparing for neighborhood collaborations
or crises, you may want to map, as well, where people with specific
problems (e.g., disabilities) live, so that neighbors can help them
prepare and cope -- without overlooking the gifts that those "needy
people" have to offer, as well..
For group/community reflection and "issue exploration"
(see also Open Space, above)
6 ) Listening circles
(a.k.a., talking circles, council, wisdom circles, etc.) - A process
originally borrowed from tribal council circles, which now appears
in many forms. Participants' communication is mediated by a held
object, often (but not necessarily) one with some special significance
to the participants. An aesthetic hand-sized stick or stone works
well. In the simplest versions, the circle's convenor holds the
object, welcomes people, makes some brief remarks about the process
and spirit of the circle, and then makes his or her personal statement.
He or she then passes the object to the person on their left who
speaks (or can remain silent for a few moments), and then passes
the object on to the next person (on THEIR left) -- and the object
proceeds around the circle, with each person who holds the object
speaking while the others listen. The object can travel around the
circle many times with great benefit. Unlike ordinary conversations,
there is no cross-talk or discussion, per se. In the most fruitful
circles, all present "speak the truth from their hearts,"
briefly and deeply sharing what they think and feel. There is no
way to command this quality of participation, of course, but participants
can agree on the spirit what they're trying to do, the convenor
can model a certain way of being, and the circle process, itself,
often invokes a reflective spirit.
There are many variations, among them:
- The circle can have an explicit theme, or not.
- Turns can be timed, or not. Timing can be done by the convenor,
or by passing a watch or clock right behind the stick or stone,
so that the person who just spoke times the next speaker.
- "Popcorn" - Anyone can speak, but
no one can speak twice until everyone has spoken once. Between
turns the object is placed into the middle or is handed to whomever
wants to speak next.
- Scrip circles - Each person gets several special
slips of paper (or pebbles or poker chips), each representing
an amount of time (usually 30 or 60 seconds). When they wish to
speak, they "buy time" for their turn (putting some
of their "scrip" in a hat that is passed to them) --
or they can give some or all of their scrip to someone else to
use, at any time. This process generates lively group dynamics
and contains the total speaking time.
- Some groups enjoy opening rituals, such as placing something
(a candle, personally meaningful objects, etc.) in the middle
of their circle to symbolize a shared center. In these groups,
closing rituals usually involve putting the candle out, removing
the center-objects, and/or holding hands in the circle.
- Impromptu circles can be done by two or more people whenever
they need or want, using whatever's handy (such as a stapler or
salt shaker) as an object to pass around.
7 ) Dialogue is
shared exploration towards greater understanding, connection, or
possibility. Many forms of communication fit this definition. And
many forms don't, including arguments, posturing, holding forth,
defensiveness, bantering discussions and other forms of communication
where we don't discover anything new or connect with each other.
Dialogue's spirit of exploration is useful when we want to understand
something or someone better. Dialogue is often needed to reach sufficient
shared understanding to come to a decision together. However, in
decision-making situations, dialogue (inquiry) often needs to be
balanced with getting things nailed down in due time. Many grassroots
groups develop strong disagreements over this, and it is wise to
create separate opportunities for both the exploratory and the get-it-done
energies to dominate.
Here are some basic guidelines for dialogue which can be discussed
and agreed to by a group and posted around a room to remind participants:
- We talk about what's really important to us - but we also like
to have fun together.
- We avoid monopolizing the conversation. We don't talk overly
long and we make sure everyone has a chance to speak.
- We really listen to each other. We see how thoroughly we can
understand each other's views and experience.
- We respect ourselves and each other, making space for our differences.
We say what's true for us without making each other wrong.
- We try not to get stuck in old thoughts and feelings. We see
what we can learn by being curious and exploring things together.
8 ) The World Cafe
is a process in which a large group can have the intimacy and engagement
of small group dialogue without losing the broader understandings
and connection possible in the full group. It evolved out of conversations
and experimentation one evening at the home of consultants Juanita
Brown and David Isaacs, with their friend Nancy Margulies.
A World Cafe is set up with space for groups of 4-8 people to sit
in circles, preferably around circular tables (although you can
do it with no tables at all) and ideally with flowers, candles,
paper tablecloths and marking pens (for writing notes on the tablecloth).
A host/hostess welcomes participants and tells them (or reminds
them of) the topic -- a question worth asking or statement worth
exploring -- something of real interest to those present. He or
she explains that after a set period of time (usually 30-45 minutes)
people will be asked to bring the conversation to a close and move
to new tables. S/he encourages them to record on the tablecloth
(or note paper) any ideas, insights or questions that emerge.
When the first round is up, the host/hostess rings a bell or chime
and says, "Each table should decide who will be its host or
hostess. That person will remain at the table for the whole session.
In a minute I will ask the rest of you to get up and move to different
tables. When everyone is seated in their new places, then the home
table host or hostess can welcome the new people and share with
them key ideas and questions that emerged from their table's earlier
discussion. Then the others can share what occurred at their original
At the end of the second round, the presiding hostess/host asks
everyone to return to their home tables to compare notes with their
original companions. At the end of this third round most people
in the room will have heard the ideas generated by the others in
In longer Cafe's, people can just keep moving from table to table.
Two variants derived from World Cafe are (a) Conversation
Cafes which are easy-to-organize and facilitate small group
dialogues in regular community venues like cafes and (b) Commons
Cafes in which four distinctly different populations are brought
together at tables of four to learn about each other's lives.
9 ) Study Circles
are voluntary, self-organizing adult education groups of 5-20 people
who meet three to six times to explore a subject, often a critical
social issue. Each meeting commonly lasts 2-3 hours and is directed
by a moderator whose role is to aid a lively but focused dialogue.
Between meetings participants read materials they were given at
the end of the last meeting. These materials are used as springboards
for dialogue (see 7 above), not as authoritative conclusions. The
materials are usually compiled by the sponsor or organizer of the
particular study circle; but groups who want to form a study circle
on a particular topic can create their own materials or get ready-to-use
packs from organizations like Everyday Democracy (formerly The Study
Circle Resource Center).
By encouraging people to formulate their own ideas about issues
and to share them with others, the study circle process helps overcome
people's lack of information and feelings of inadequacy in the face
of complex problems. They can be sponsored by civic organizations,
activists, businesses, unions, churches, discussion groups and governments
10 ) Scenario
and Visioning Work - diverse ways of a group or community
exploring possible and desirable futures together.
For group decision-making
11 ) Holistic
Management Allan Savory's step by step process for
12 ). Consensus
(including color-coded straw polls) (distinguish from unanimity)
13 ). Supermajority
(66%, 75%, 80%)
For conflict work / exploration of differences
See also Open Space and Commons Cafe, above
14 ). Dynamic
dialogue - People moving through polarized emotional
stances about possible crises, to a place of working together on
15 ). Widening
Circles exercise (Joanna Macy) - People expanding their
perspective from their own to others very different from themselves,
to other species, to the voice of the future.
16 ). Process
Worldwork (Arny Mindell) - A gathering that calls forth
the archetypal voices in groups that occupy a tense community, conflict,
or situation to confront and speak their truth to each other, ultimately
shifting the emotional energy in the collective field they share.
17 ) Conflict
Styles Coaching - A coach works with one or more individuals
in a conflict to explore their usual conflict style -- accommodate,
avoid, collaborate, compete, and compromise -- and reflect on what
style they want to use in the current conflict.
18 ) Dynamic
Facilitation - This process follows the group energy,
hearing each energized person in turn, making sure they feel well
heard (including at an emotional level) and adding their perspective
into the growing collective pot. As people feel heard, they open
up to hearing others. As most people feel heard, they begin to think
together about the growing complexity in the collective pot. At
which point breakthroughs start to occur....
19 ) Fishbowl
- People from one perspective sit and talk in the middle while all
others watch and listen. And then people from another/opposed perspective
sit and talk in the middle while everyone else watches and listens.
If there are more than two significant perspectives, the process
continues until all perspectives have been heard. Then it starts
over again, with the conversations now influenced by what they've
heard from the other perspectives.
20 ) Transformative
Mediation - This is not so much about resolving the
conflict as transforming the parties, relationships and issues involved.
21 ) Mediated Dialogue - Search
for Common Ground gets people on opposite sides of a polarized
issue to debate each other -- but with a twist: Before Party B can
reply to Party A, they have to summarize what Party A said to Party
A's satisfaction -- and vice versa. The intention is not to "win
the debate" but to clarify what the actual differences are
between the parties and explore what any common ground. Usually,
they discover they share a lot more than they thought -- and sometimes
come up with projects to do together!
22 ) Nonviolent
Communication - Delve down below behaviors into the
underlying emotions, then into the underlying needs (unmet, met)
and then see what else might serve those deep needs.
23 ) Alternative
dispute resolution (ADR) -- This covers a range of
options used by the legal system outside of usual governmental judicial
processes. It usually includes negotiation
(in which parties seek to find a solution together), mediation
(in which parties try to resolve the conflict with the help of a
mediator), collaborative law (in which the parties and their lawyers
work out a resolution contract), and arbitration (where parties
agree ahead of time to abide by an imposed solution).
For emotional processing/sharing
(see also Listening Circles and Nonviolent Communication, above)
24 ) Re-evaluation Co-Counseling
- a process through which people in pairs take turns listening to
each other's distress, helping them release trapped emotional energy,
so that they become freer to see clearly how to deal with their
lives and recover their natural joy and resilience.
25 ) Open sentences practice
- Joanna Macy - Facing difficult public issues or crises together
by each of us completing three simple sentences.
26) Despair and Empowerment
work - Denial comes from caring and feeling powerless
to take effective action. We can work together down through our
denial to our caring, and then using that passion to take effective
27 ) Story sharing - We find no page that describes
this in generic terms, but sharing stories and personal experiences
around a problem (as is done in Alcoholics
Anonymous), a trauma (as is done in support
groups), a conflict (as is done in the Public
Conversations Project), a social dynamic (as is done in feminist
consciousness raising circles), or in drama (as in multiple
viewpoint drama) is a very common and powerful way of connecting
people at the heart level and broadening their sense of how different
experiences generate different responses to issues and situations.
(see also Dynamic Facilitation, Listening Circle and Scrip Circle,
28 ) Reverse agenda - List the whole agenda and
then read the items to people, asking them to "raise your hand
if you can end this meeting without handling this item."
The items with the lowest numbers are the highest priority items.
29 ) Brainstorming
30 ) PMI
- positive (plus), negative (minus), and interesting (deBono)
31 ) Chime and stone
32 ) Gestures of Conversational
33 ) Commitment chunks - People commit to 3-10
meetings and then review how that was for them and decide if and
how long to commit for further meetings.
34 ) Facilitation technique resources and guidance
Community resilience and sustainability resources
See also Asset Based Community Development and Wisdom
35 ) Learning
for Sustainability - guidance for sustainable development
and collective learning at the leading edge of the mainstream.
36 ) Appropedia
- an alternative wikipedia on sustainable solutions to community
and global challenges
37 ) New
Rules Project of the Institute for Self-Reliance -
a growing storehouse of community and local economy-building rules
- laws, regulations, and ordinances
38 ) The Community
Solution - down-to-earth solutions to support local
resilience in a future increasingly defined by peak oil, climate
change, and shaky economies and infrastructure
39 ) Permaculture
- a coherent theory and practice of sustainability in all areas,
at all levels, starting with the garden
40 ) Center
for Community Enterprise
- an extensive toolbox for community resilience and renewal (although
not necessarily environmental sustainability), especially for small
41 ) Local
and complementary currencies
- guidance and examples of local currencies that keep economic
energy within the local community
42 ) Worldchanging
- a blog of alternative approaches and sustainability initiatives
of all types
Approaches to Community Engagement
and the Generation of Community Wisdom
Co-Intelligent Practices, Approaches,
Processes and Organizations
Designing Multi-Process Programs
for Public Participation
- Creating Community Anywhere by Carolyn Shaffer
and Kristin Anundsen (Tarcher/Perigree, 1993). "The most
comprehensive book I know of about the community movement."
-- M. Scott Peck. Building community with friends, family, support
groups, neighborhoods, co-workers, cyber-companions, shared households
and visionary communities. Excellent guidance on conflict, decision-making,
celebrations, communication and dealing with community evolution
and "shadow side."
- The Fifth Discipline by Peter Senge (Doubleday
Currency, 1990). This book introduced the world to the idea of
an organization that can learn. It was followed by the The
Fifth Discipline Fieldbook by Senge, et. al. (Doubleday
Currency, 1994), jam-packed with strategies, tools and exercises
to help us build such organizations.
- Future Search by Marvin Weisbord and Sandra Janoff
(Berrett-Koehler, 1995). A how-to book for finding common ground
and co-creating the future of organizations and communities. http://www.futuresearch.net/
- Complexity by M. Waldrop (Simon & Schuster,
1992). This book opened my eyes to the way nature generates totally
new phenomena through the co-evolution of complex synergies.
- Democracy and Technology by Richard Sclove (Guildford,
1995). Shows how technologies support and undermine democracy,
and asks: "What role should democracy have in the development
of technology?" http://www.loka.org/
- The Ecology of Commerce by Paul Hawken (HarperBusiness,
1993). How an economy world work that fully collaborated with
- Shifting by Paul Krapfel ($12.50 from 18080 Brincat
Manor Dr., Cottonwood, CA 96022). Engaging examples of nature
dancing entropy into life, and how we humans can join that dance.
His updated, nicer, more expensive version is Seeing Nature:
Deliberate encounters with the visible world (Chelsea Green,
1999) which is available from bookstores. http://www.krafel.net
- Who Do You Think You Are? by Keith Harary and Eileen
Donahue. (HarperSF, 1994). How to use The Berkeley Personality
Profile, which explores human differences without "typing"
- The Three Faces of Mind by Elaine de Beauport (Quest,
1996). An integrated theory of multi-modal intelligence based
on the functions of the three parts of the human brain.
- Frames of Mind by Howard Gardner (Basic Books,
1993). The first fully-researched theory of multiple intelligences
that opened the door to expanded views of intelligence.
- Open Space Technology by Harrison Owen (Berrett-Koehler,
1997). The how-to manual for one of the simplest, most powerful
self-organized collective processes we have.
- Facilitators Guide to Participatory Decision-Making
by Sam Kaner, et al. (New Society, 1996). A brilliant,
very understandable guide to facilitated consensus process, organized
so that pieces can be copied and used by the group.
- Dialogue: Rediscovering the Transforming Power of Conversation
by Linda Ellinor and Glenna Gerard (J. Wiley and Sons, 1998).
- The Joy of Conversation by Jaida N'ha Sandra (Utne,
1997). The Utne Reader-sponsored guide to co-creative
salons of all types. Excellent writeups on study circles, listening
circles, etc. http://www.utne.com
- Study Circles by Len Oliver (Seven Locks, 1987).
The history and practice of small-group, democratic, adult education
and social learning. http://www.studycircles.org
- The Quickening of America by Frances Moore Lappé
and Paul Du Bois (Jossey-Bass, 1994). Powerful examples and new
theory about how Americans are "doing democracy."
- The Leader as Martial Artist by Arnold Mindell
(HarperSF, 1992). The Aikido of conflict resolution, relationship
- The Aquarian Conspiracy by Marilyn Ferguson (Tarcher,1980).
The book on the holistic "new paradigm" revolution which
laid the groundwork for co-intelligence.
- Necessary Wisdom by Charles Johnston (ICD Press,
POB 85631, Seattle, WA 98145; 1991). The dance of opposites into
creative co-evolution; building living bridges between us, where
we come alive together.
- Confessions of Empowering Organizations. by Redburn,
Ray, et al. (Association for Quality and Participation,
1991). 92 case studies of partnership and empowerment, self-managed
work crews, self-directed reorganizations -- with names and phone
- Leadership and the New Science by Margaret Wheatley
(Berrett-Koelher, 1992). How to relate to organizations as natural
- Transforming Human Culture by Jay Earley (SUNY,
1997). Tracking the evolution of integral culture from prehistory
into the 21st Century. http://www.earley.org
- Getting to Yes by Roger Fisher and Willima Ury
(Penguin, 1981). The classic introduction to principled negotiation.
(See review of Roger Fisher's books
by Rowan Smith and William Ury's GETTING
- Reworking Success by Robert Theobald (New Society,
1997). An accessible re-examination of how to make communities
and societies work better in the 21st Century.
- Heart Politics by Fran Peavey (New Society, 1986).
One of the most creative inquiries into what it means to live
a life trying to change things for the better, sensitive to the
interconnectedness, mystery, beauty and quirkiness of life.
- Building Communities from the Inside Out: A Path Toward
Finding and Mobilizing a Community's Assets by John P.
Kretzmann and John L. McKnight (Center for Urban Affairs and Policy
Research, 1993; $15 from ACTA Publications  397-2282)
- The Spirit of Community: The Reinvention of American Society
by Amitai Etzioni (Touchstone/Simon & Schuster, 1993). The
kick-off of the communitarian movement.
- The Power in our Hands: Neighborhood-Based World Shaking
by Tony Gibson (Jon Carpenter, UK,1996). How-tos and stories for
those who want to make a creative difference in their communities.
- Going Local: Creating Self-Reliant Communities in a Global
Age by Michael H. Shuman (The Free Press, 1998). The title
- Self-Reliant Cities by David Morris (Sierra Club Books,1982).
The classic visionary text on the relationships of American cities
to energy. This and many other books on that topic can be found
- The Basketmaker: Helping People Create Communities of Opportunity,
ed. by Michael Patterson, et. al. (available online).
A fascinating mix of vision, inspiration, how-to's, references
and stories, especially targetted for people working with disadvantaged
communities, but powerfully useful to all of us.
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